Basics, Basics, Basics!!!—The Training of a Handstand.

One of the issues that I find the most frustrating when watching people coach in the sport is the lack of work done on the basics.  I know that there are many reasons for this.  Obviously, there are those coaches out there who are just lazy.  Most of them wouldn’t be reading a blog about gymnastics anyway, so I am not talking to them right now.  I think there is a very large group of coaches out there who really want to do the right thing when it comes to teaching basics, but just don’t have the practical experience with these basics to, in turn, trust the process enough to really spend the right amount of time on them.  In other words, these coaches are semi-trapped in the world of “If my gymnast is going to compete a hyperthingamajiggy, then I need to have them doing more hyperthingamajiggys”.  This is understandable, as that seems to be the common sense of it.  I think there is a perception in all sports that, when pursuing greatness, the best plan would be to do the thing that you want to be great at 9 gazillion times.  I would think that most of the people who will read this are aware that this is not the case, and that true success lies in the “breakdown” of these complicated skills and furthermore, the preparation along the way for these skills.

This idea is important all the way down to the simplest of actual skills.  I would like to first discuss the handstand and then proceed to other skills in the coming weeks.  I hope that this helps all of you.  I know it is rather long, but I wanted to really get into detail with my progressions for this “most important of all skills”. 

At first glance, a handstand seems to be a fairly simple skill.  But, I would argue that, even the handstand is a complex skill in terms of all of the things that need to happen to create a perfect (or as perfect as the particular body will allow) handstand, and therefore, strong skills down the road that involve the handstand (and we all know there are tons of these).  Some of the key points to a handstand:

  • It needs to be as straight as possible
  • The ears should be nearly or completely covered while still allowing the gymnast to see her hands, but not her fingertips
  • The weight should be more on the fingertips than the heel of the hand (or at least feel that way)
  • The shoulders should be extended (shrugged up)
  • There should be muscle tension throughout the body, so that, if the coach tried to push a part of the body out of line, it would be difficult to do so

So, as you can see, there is a lot to accomplish in this “simple” skill.  None of this even includes the lunge, or the lever into, or out of, the handstand.  If we add those things, you would probably agree that it is not likely that a human being could concentrate on all of these things in one attempt at a handstand.  Because of this, we need to breakdown this skill so that we can make it easier to accomplish one or two of these things at a time before moving on to other corrections in the handstand.

The way that I most always approach the handstand is by doing two to three different drills in conjunction with each other to achieve the best handstand possible.

The Lunge – – – We work on lots of lunges!  In this position:

  • The knee should be on top of the toes
  • The feet should turn out just slightly
  • The hips should be square by stressing to the gymnast that she squeezes the thigh (quadriceps) of her back leg toward the hamstring of her front leg 
  • The arms should be up and covering the ears (but, at first, I have them do the lunge with their hands on their hips to just focus on the legs)
  • The head should be neutral   
  • The ribs should be in, so that the lower back is not arched
  • The tummy should be tight  

One of the things you can do with a lunge is to do one with the front toes against a wall and then push the knee to the wall, or do the same with a stack of pit blocks.  Walking around and pushing down on the gymnasts arms or palms to see if their cores give in is a good idea, as well.  Just don’t push too hard until you know they are engaging those muscles.

The Body Tension – – – One of the first and best ways of creating better body tension in the gymnast is to have them lay down on their backs and then the coach picks up their feet.  As her feet are lifted she should learn to squeeze her bottom so that her body is straight as the coach holds her feet up at about 45 degrees.  At first, we have to teach the athlete to squeeze in this position after we have lifted her feet.  As we progress with this, she should learn to squeeze before we lift her, so that the body tension is there from the beginning.  This is a great way to get them to understand how tight they need to be in a handstand.  Another body tension drill is to have the gymnast lay across a gap of mats (two panel mats work fine), so that her shoulders are on one mat and her heels are on the other.  She then squeezes her bottom and tightens her body so that she creates a straight line over that gap.  We have to watch to make sure that she is not arching and pushing her hips up too high beyond the straight position.  There are lots of ways to accomplish this body tension, so be creative!

The handstand against a wall – – – I start these by doing what are called “wall-walkers”, and then progressing from there.  The “wall-walker” is done by having the gymnast place her back against a wall, and then bend over to place her hands on the floor.  She then walks her feet up the wall to arrive in a handstand.  At this point, she should walk her hands in a little closer to the wall to get as close to vertical as she can get without falling.  The goal here is for her to hold this position herself, and then have the coach poke and pull on her to get her to use her body tension to hold the handstand.  Ideally, only her toes and maybe her chin should touch the wall.  At this point, I always stress to the gymnast to grow as tall as she can, or as a friend of mine says “Grow another inch”.  There are lots of variations to this drill, including turning around and kicking up so that the back is against the wall, or doing a handstand under a bar so that the gymnast has to “grow” just to touch her toes against the front side of the bar to be able to balance herself there.  Again, be creative.

Bridges, bridges, and other shoulder flexibility – – – Remember that an ideal handstand is perfectly straight.  It is impossible to get a gymnast’s body into a straight line if she is not flexible in her shoulders.  The work must be done to create this shoulder flexibility, so that she has the opportunity to get her body into a straight line.  One easy way to do this is by having the gymnast do bridges and try to get her shoulders out past her hands.  I almost always have the gymnast do these with her feet on something that is at least as tall as her shoulders when she is in a bridge.  This takes the stress off of the lower back and puts it where it is supposed to be: the shoulders.  We also place a mat or block or something out in front of the gymnast’s chest, so that she can push up against that to stretch the shoulders.  As she becomes more accomplished at this, we move it a little further away. 

Build strength in the right places – – – I am a big believer in the fact that a gymnast can build plenty of strength just by doing a handstand and repeating it.  The potential problem with this, though, is that the gymnast can build strength in the wrong places if this handstand is repeated over and over in the wrong position.  I am reminded of one of the favorite quotes of myself and several coaches I have great respect for, “Practice does not make perfect…Practice makes permanent.”  If a gymnast repeats something over and over again, she will become incredible at WHATEVER she is practicing.  If she is practicing a bad handstand, and does it a trillion times, she will be able to hold the nastiest handstand for longer than anyone else (and we have all had this gymnast).  I am sure that you would agree that getting this gymnast to fix this problem after that much repetition is one of the most difficult things possible.  It is because she has developed strength in the wrong places for a correct handstand.  So, every time that a gymnast is doing a handstand, I am thinking to myself, “What strength is she creating right now?  Should I slow her down and have her do the handstand with a spot or against a wall, etc. to make sure she is getting the proper strength work from that handstand?”  This helps me to be more diligent about the correct strength training for the handstand.

The single leg handstand – – – This is my favorite drill for a handstand, because I think it is the most effective for getting the gymnast in the right position on her fingertips.  I have the gymnasts, when doing handstands from a lunge, do these almost exclusively when they are not doing them with a spot.  If a gymnast can “lever” up to a split (a small split) handstand, and hold that, then bringing the legs together and holding that is much easier.  My goal with these is to have the gymnast get the back leg to go up to just a little bit past vertical, and then try to balance that.  We work really hard at maintaining square hips all the way through the skill, by squeezing the same muscles as we did during the lunge.  This drill is important also, in the fact that there are too many times that gymnasts try to put their feet together too soon, and therefore never achieve vertical.  Doing the split handstand helps to guarantee that they will get the back leg through vertical first.  I continue to do these all the way up through our system (as a warm-up), including with my level 9s and 10s.  In my opinion, it makes no sense to proceed to handstands with feet together until they can master this, and hold it for 3-5 seconds nearly every time they attempt it.  After they have this mastered, I will have them still hold the split handstand for 1-2 seconds before bringing the feet together in the handstand.  I have used these progressions in the past for balance beam as well.  I’m sure that we have all felt the misery of trying to get a gymnast to get all the way up to handstand on the beam.  It is probably a little naive’ to think that they will do that if they haven’t even learned to get all the way to vertical with a split handstand first.  We must remember, I think, that bringing the feet together is, in essence, the end of the progress toward vertical.  Once they bring their feet together, they are not likely to go any higher toward complete vertical.  At that point, it is what it is.

Later on…After working these drills for a while, when moving on to doing handstands with feet together, I have another technique I use to help them learn to get their weight on their fingertips.  It involves having them get into a habit of making the handstand fall the opposite direction than the turn prior to it, if the handstand is not held for at least 5 seconds.  In other words, if a gymnast kicks up and closes her feet together and then comes back down to a lunge before holding the handstand for 5 seconds, I make sure that she understands that the next one must go over to a roll or bridge, and vice-versa.  If she continues to train with this mentality, she will eventually “find” her balance point, and have more success with holding this handstand.

This is a drill I have been doing with our level 5 gymnasts:

So, these are my ideas for training a handstand.  Please let me know what you do to help your gymnasts with this skill, or ask any questions about anything that I have written.  I promise you that all I am doing is relaying things that I have learned along the way from coaches that were kind enough to share their experience with me.  I hope to pass on that tradition through this blog.  Thank you for your time in reading this.   


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35 Comments on “Basics, Basics, Basics!!!—The Training of a Handstand.”

  1. Love the new blog.

    Gave it a shout out today:

    My only request would be more graphics, photos or videos to explain the text.

  2. Chris Says:

    Thanks Rick!

    We are working on that. I am going to be doing a bunch of exercise stuff very soon. I am going to put together some samples of the exercise movements that I described in a previous post.

    I think that Troy is working on getting some video in the gym, as well.


  3. Just Another Opinion Says:

    With regard to the question about why more coaches don’t spend more time on handstands, I think one contributing factor is a lack of interest on the part of the coach. If re-teaching a handstand is boring for the coach, it’s going to be boring for the kid, and both of them would rather be training the more “exciting” things (we’ve all felt the pressure to be the “fun” coach, just the same as parents feel the pressure to be the fun, permissive one). The difficult thing for these coaches is to find a way to be excited about something that needs to be done, or find a way to fill the kid with passion about doing the basics. I think, in part, the term “basics” has an air of “remedial” to it, and when a kid feels “remedial” she might feel like she’s being punished, and punished kids don’t feel inspired to work very hard. Perhaps we should start using the word “fundamentals” (not because the word FUN is in it) as a means of dispelling the negativity associated with “basics” (and, five years from now, we’ll switch back once “fundamentals” starts having negative connotations). This is less a technical issue, and more a philosophical and gym-mentality issue; do your kids want to get better, or do they just want to do things? Does the coach want better kids, or “happier” (placated) kids?

    So how do you inspire kids to love handstands? I’m not a fan of games, but that’s certainly an occasionally effective route. If the kids are old enough, I like to try to remind them how unbelievably uncommon a basic handstand is in the greater population. Not counting their gym friends, odds are most of their peer group from school can’t kick up to vertical, let alone hold a handstand. And even though their peer group won’t have the vocabulary to articulate the difference between a good or bad handstand, they will be able to tell that one girl is holding a banana stand, and one girl is rock solid and unmoving. I think sometimes it’s helpful to remind them how impressive they are compared to the kids they know outside of gym. It also probably doesn’t hurt that we tell them not to demonstrate anything outside of gym, even though they probably get hounded to all the time, but if ever there were a safe way to demonstrate their gymnastics ability, it’d be a handstand. So, I wouldn’t question a girl’s decision to show one off all day long at school.

  4. Another great article.

    One drill i LOVE! for teaching a handstand is a 1/2 HS (feet on a spot block and hands on the ground…gymnast looks like a right angle) Its a great conditioning exercises and shaping exercises. This drill also greatly helps improve shoulder flexibility (actively).

    For balance i recommend working on parallets (its much easier to hold a HS), also work HS on a firm surface, because its much easier.
    However i don’t place a great deal of emphasis on free standing HS on the floor . If the gymnast is able to hit 10 out of 10 times the HS shape on the floor and go into it correctly but not able to hold for long periods of time i am OK with that. Pretty much shape over hold time personally.

    For time and endurance i like doing HS against the wall. I took this idea from Coach Sommer and the Chinease National team of doing HS holds and shoulder taps for minutes at a time. At the last gym i worked at the older kids were holding handstands shoulder taps at the wall for 6 min (we were working towards building up to 10)..first 3 min shape had to be good..after that it would ease up on the corrections as the reached their limits. With the younger kids they would do the 1/2 HS for 3.5min (they start of with 45sec and over a period of 2months or a bit less built up to 3.5min)..I have to say this was a FANTASTIC form of conditioning.

    In retrospect now, i think i would have had the older kids do the 1/2 or 3/4 HS as well and not just the HS at the wall.

    Ontop of that i do a lot of shaping and spotting for HS shape..
    I start little kids 5-6 on HS really seriously, and basicly their conditioning centers a lot around the HS. By the age of 7-8 Their HS are pretty damn good. However i won’t lie…Not everyone looked amazing, there is nothing you can do as a coach to make anyone want to be perfect no matter how much you try..

    In bulgarian there is a saying “you can’t make people do good things by force” (doesn’t translate very well)..but basicly you can’t force the gymnast to want to be perfect. They have to want it.

    Unfortunately its late, and i always end up reading your blog late at night and end up rambling. So i shall stop here. But Again thanks for the great article.. always great to get a refresher on this skill.

    Valentin Uzunov

  5. PitbullUnicorn Says:

    On a side note, I’ve NEVER felt pressure to be the “fun” coach 🙂

    There are other ways to train handstands that I feel help with getting strong enough, and my favorite is to do a handstand against 1/2 a surface, 1/3 of a surface, and 1/4 of a surface. Half would go to the small of their back, a third goes to the middle, and a quarter is just high enough to get their shoulders. Even rec kids can work these (to varying degrees) but for team kids it’s essential. It teaches them not only the shape and form needed (you can do these with back or stomach to surface as well) but it eventually teaches them how to balance on their hands, as well.
    There are lots of exercises to do as partners, too. And don’t forget handstands between parallel bars – excellent way to teach shape and balance, as well!

  6. PlatypusTiger Says:

    OMG I had no idea!!!! ThanXXXXXX! 🙂

  7. Excellent post. Definitely a few great drills here that I hadn’t seen before.

  8. 5centz Says:

    Do many coaches feel that basics are boring so they can push through to harder skills, or do the majority of beginner-level coaches lack the knowledge base to teach them well? I spend considerable effort encouraging my class coaches how to look for and teach good technique. I have even trained them in breaking down skills to teach them better. I find that coaches with a stronger grasp of the fundamentals (I like that term, JAOS!) are also better at teaching them, regardless of their fears of seeming boring to their students. I think more coaches need to also explain to their gymnasts that mastering the fundamentals is integral to learning harder skills down the line. My pre-team knows that I stress proper handstands on floor because I will also ask them to do them on beam, bars, and vault. I explain my reasons for everything so they know that they’ll get to the fun skills soon enough, but they have to master those basics for their safety and continued success in the sport.

  9. Just Another Opinion Says:

    5Centz: It may be straight boredom on the part of the coach, or it may be lack of knowledge, but at the heart of both of those, I see it as an insecurity issue, coupled with an inaccurate perception of quality measurement.

    Coach A, maybe only even subconsciously, wants to prove to the world he’s an awesome coach. Why else would Coach A be coaching team? If Coach *just* loved coaching, he could coach rec kids and not have to worry about levels and meets and stress and fears and injuries and crying and nagging parents (or at least not to the same degree). So, on SOME level, at SOME point, we’re all coaching competitive stuff because we like competing, and we like competing because we like winning.

    So, we can probably agree Coach A wants to win, and accept that as a reasonable premise? Now, perhaps at some level, Coach A has begun to notice his kids aren’t winning at meets. That’s ok, Coach A thinks, because there are other ways of measuring how good his kids are, i.e., how good of a coach he is. Coach A can persuade his girls, his parents, and most importantly himself, that it’s ok not to win at meets, for any of a number of reasons (we don’t train for this level, we train for the next level, the other teams have older girls, second year girls, they only practice meet stuff and we work on next year stuff, etc.) And those are all plausible, believable, and even potentially valid reasons for why Coach A’s girls did not place very well at a meet. Indeed, there are effective gyms that train ahead, practice other things, and only compete at certain USAG level because they have to in order to move their girls up, etc. But that’s not Coach A, and Coach A doesn’t understand that.

    Coach A’s problem may be that he subscribes to a very dangerous and sadly all too common perception of gymnastics, which incorrectly states: If Coach A and Coach B both have a girl competing the same skills in Level X, but Coach A’s girl is younger, then Coach A must be the better coach, because he got his gymnast to do Level X before Coach B.

    For a million reasons, we know that’s not a true conclusion. But it is in Coach A’s mind, though Coach A might not even admit it out loud, it nonetheless exists on some level to some degree. We’ve all been guilty at some point of seeing a team with a dozen babies at whatever level and thought “holy cow, I wish I had that.” (Which is the sister perception, also incorrect: If Coach A has 10 kids in optional level X and Coach B has 5, Coach A is a better coach)

    So, if this is an operational thought in Coach A’s mind, it’s going to affect his philosophy and approach toward coaching. Which means instead of trusting patience and discipline, he’s going to equate greatness with earliness, and if he’s in a large enough market or has even just a little bit of luck, there’s going to be a girl who moves through his program every once in a while (just frequently enough to convince him his approach is right) who is going to be able to pick things up at the speed at which he coaches. She’ll look narsty, (that’s intentional) but he either won’t care or won’t know. It will justify him to himself, and be reason to be upset with the other girls who aren’t picking things up.

    So why would Coach A spend any more time on a handstand than is minimally necessary? He won’t, because he needs to feel like he’s a great coach, and, unfortunately for him, he thinks that means getting kids to do things before other people can get their kids to do things. If he slows down, he’s going to feel like he’s behind, like he’s losing the race, and like he’s a bad coach; and his kids, who have been raised on speed, will suddenly be resistant to this new type of slow coaching, which will create chaos, argument, etc., and he won’t have the courage to keep the foot down, the kids and parents will run over him, and he’ll be forced back into speed-coaching in a few months with nothing to show for it but a few angry quitters and some mean emails from parents accusing him of not knowing what he’s doing, which is every insecure coach’s nightmare.

  10. […] coaches and gymnasts we all know how important a move the basic handstand. I really enjoyed this article by Chris on Handstands. I strongly suggest that you take the time and read it. I’m really […]

  11. […] Or check out the original (very popular) post – Basics, Basics, Basics!!!—The Training of a Handstand. […]

  12. Just Another Opinion:
    your 18 January post is perhaps the most perceptive and insightful dissection of the issue/problem/dilemma of the JO coaching paradigm I’ve ever encountered……

    absolutely perfect.


    (yes, intentionally “shouting”!)

  13. Just Another Opinion Says:

    Thanks Jim!

  14. Valentin Says:


    Just Another Opinion the 18th Jan comment was great, so so so true. I have been here in the US for less them a month, and what you described is so vivid to an outside observer.

    However the questions that we as coaches and students of the sport should be asking is why?, why do coaches do this, what is missing.

    Because it seems to me that coaches are very much aware of this issue/problem/dilemma (as Jim from Seattle called it). So WHY do coaches continue to coach like this…

    The whole issues is actually quite complicated, because for one to understand the causing factors to this problem one has to include the understand the cultural, sociological, and economic factors involved as well. There are many external pressures on Coach A to produce results, and result outcomes are measured by
    A- The Owner or Head coach who must keep a certain amount of kids in the program to keep people on staff
    B- The parents who pay the bills
    C- Coach A.
    D- Gymnast

    I am not defending coach A, however i want to just point out that for coach A to change his approach in coaching he has to cut through a tone of red tape. Essentially the problem is in the actual curriculum/program the Head coach has established, and the expectations of the Owners.
    Of course coach A could make huge improvements in his coaching by being better educated (technically and pedagogically). However for Coach A to really change his approach there needs to be a fundamental change in the program run.

    What are possible solutions?
    I have some ideas but interested to hear what others have to say..

  15. Valentin Says:

    Ohh also in regard to the actual post by Tony, i think it was another great post.. really helpful and informative. Thanks

    I could spend a while talking about what i think about the HS, but instead i am just link to this article i wrote on it.. [url=]The handstand: A four stage training model[/url]

    My personal favorite drills to teaching the HS if i could only do 4 stations would be:
    1 — 1/2 HS, 3/4 HS (using a spot block..kind of like what Vid 2).. Shaping and introducing the HS == against a wall or kind of like in Vid 3..with a shape forcing the shoulders to remain open.
    2- HS on parallets, and Donkey kicks for balance
    3- Hollow holds at the wall, and progressing to HS at the wall (facing in, and out) – Shaping and conditioning..
    4- Lunges – Entry

    Valentin Uzunov

  16. Pierre Says:

    Enjoyed the article. A question related to technique. I have been teaching gymnastics to adult beginners for many years and although I teach the lunge I have my students contact the ground with the shoulders in an extended position not with the arms by the ears. During the kick to handstand I have them flex the shoulders to finish in the straight body handstand. The shoulder action is similar to that seen in a cast to handstand or swing to handstand on the pbars. This approach has been quite sucessful with my beginners. comments would be appreciated.

  17. noelani Says:

    I have been searching for some resources like this that allow me to take my coaching up a notch. Thanks for the comments!

  18. […] Here's an article about handstands, with some video. It's not specific to beam, but a handstand is a handstand, and when your daughter becomes more comfortable with them and stronger in them, there won't be any fear in doing them on the beam. Basics, Basics, Basics!!!—The Training of a Handstand. Coaching Gymnastics in the New Milleniu… […]

  19. Emily Says:

    Wow. Just a quick note, thank you so much, amazing tips! Emily.

  20. […] Originally Posted by gymjuice DD is level 7 gymnast and lacks that basic fundamental ability to hold a handstand. How did this happen? She can hold for about 10 seconds but then begins to walk it. Her age is important here. She's 10, and says she understands the concept of using her core and her legs to hold it when she starts to fall but that she just can't put all the concepts in place to keep from falling. I'm not so sure she really comprehends all that comes into play. I think she thinks she just needs to use her arms. Are there any drills that can be recommended to help her with this at home? Obviously by this time in her career, she's not spending much time on handstands at the gym so she's working on them at home and becoming very frustrated. Thanks! If she is not spending much time on handstands in the gym, her coaches are doing some very bad coaching. I agree with Ryantroop that 10 seconds is not so bad, though I would add, "provided it is a straight handstand and not a banana-stand," (realistically, she only needs to ever hit a handstand for 2-3 seconds at most on beam, and then only fractions of a second on the other events, but it needs to be straight and not all warped). But still. There is no such thing as "at this point in her career." Not working on handstands in practice would be like pro baseball players not taking batting practice. It's beyond basic fundamentals. That's my opinion obviously, but I simply can't fathom a gym not working handstands, at every level. Maybe I misunderstood how much "not much" is, but no matter, it's a basic shape, it's in every event, it should be worked on at every event. That being said, here's an article on a different gym blog. These guys present some good videos and info on some basic handstand drills: Basics, Basics, Basics!!!—The Training of a Handstand. Coaching Gymnastics in the New Milleniu… […]

  21. Rajesh Says:

    good, it is much better to learn handstand accurately…..thank u

  22. Wow I’m gonna try some

  23. Abi Says:

    Thankyou so much for this blog! I’m only a UKCC level 1 at a club that doesn’t really compete levels as much as I wished. But I’m starting out with a 4-5 yr old development squad, who I want to train up with gorgeous basics and super strength and flexibility, for when they get taken from me for the next squad up.
    This was so helpful, and I’m currently adding it into my plan for the next few months.
    Any strength charts for this age group / drills will be greatly appreciated. Barring in mind, although I would absolutely love to do more, they only train once a week, and I’m pushing for another session with them per week as of Jan.

  24. Christina Leal Says:

    Great Info..thanks!

  25. […] How do you fix a banana back? I don’t even know. Maybe develop a better handstand. […]

  26. Kelly Says:

    I had never used wall walkers before to teach handstands and found a great many issues in my beginners (older and heavier gymnasts) that made this drill seem counterproductive. The gymnasts wanted to start with their hips below their shoulders to walk up the wall creating an arched back. The gymnasts in your video keep their shoulders open and do not close that space between their arms and their body. Their hips remain over their shoulders as they walk up the mat. These beginning gymnasts closed that space just enough to cause their hips to be much closer to the mat than their shoulders, creating what looked more like a leaning tower than a lead-up to a handstand as is seen on your video. Most important of all-please correct me if I am wrong -when kicking to a handstand, we do not push out through our shoulders until we hit vertical and want to stop the forward momentum of the handstand. Even the girls in your video (and me when I try it) have to push out through the shoulders to walk up the wall. When we kick to a handstand, we want to keep our shoulders a little loose until we are ready to stop the momentum of the handstand. Isn’t this correct? What precautionary things can coaches say when explaining walking up the wall to help gymnasts keep that space open instead of teaching them to push out through their shoulders before they reach vertical later when they try it without the mat?

  27. Felipe Says:

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  28. umesh Says:


  29. […] me a message. My articles are not currently intended to provide lists of drills, but if you click HERE, it will take you to a good article listing ways to coach […]

  30. master0515 Says:

    I have learned a lot from your blog, thanks!

  31. Muriel Says:

    There’s certainly a lot to know about this topic. I like all of the points you’ve made.

  32. Lakeisha Says:

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  33. Kelle Says:

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